Lithium battery fire prevention strategy

Lithium batteries are generally divided into lithium metal batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion has been applied more and more widely because it is rechargeable and it’s high energy density. Lithium-ion battery safety is a bottleneck of lithium-ion battery and related industries development. The electrolyte inside lithium-ion cell is the flammable liquid, the electrode is combustible material, lithium battery occurs thermal runaway, in case of overcharge, short circuit, overheating, puncture or collision, etc., and easy to get fire or explosion. So how to implement the lithium-ion battery fire program?

lithium battery fire

Lithium battery fire prevention strategy

Lithium battery fire prevention needs to establish multi-lines of defense. Besides the internal battery will not use non-flammable or flame-retardant materials as much as possible to make the battery has intrinsically safe performance, the first line of defense outside the battery is to prevent the causes of overheating of the battery, such as overcharge, short circuit, impact, etc., it needs to do the secure design to electrical system.

When the first line of defense is broken (for instance, when the battery management system failure occurred, didn’t cut off the charging power supply on time), the battery temperature increases, the temperature sensor or gas of monitoring system, the smoke detectors should promptly find the faults and alarm to remind the staffs handling the matter, eliminate the cause of fire. This is the second line of defense.

If the fault is not timely dealt, the second line of defense was broken, the battery burning (smoldering) has been unable to avoid, the extinguisher system should do is to limit the combustion in the containment of the dead battery (or box), and to isolate adjacent unburned batteries and equipment, to avoid the fire to expand. As the lithium-ion battery thermal runaway, temperature is extremely high, the existing nonagueous extinguishing agent, for instance, gas, dry powder can not make the battery temperature drop down quickly, the fire effect is not ideal. Therefore, the battery fire prevention target is set as controlled burn-down, is a more realistic program, strong techno-economics. This is the third line of defense.

Lithium battery fire prevention strategy

The used fire prevention materials’ main components are particle mineral substance, non-flammable, non-conducting, non-corrosive, safe and green, light-weight, reliable and affordable, can widely used to fire prevention of lithium battery in production, storage, transportation and use. Under the protection of fire-resistant particles, even though lithium batteries overheat and burn due to the heating or overcharge. No open flame, no explosion occurred, only white smoke emits, it can avoid the expansion of fire caused by the burning of lithium batteries.

Fire prevention principle: isolation of oxygen smothering, decalescence and cooling. Particle diameter: 1-4mm. Particle density: 360kg/m3. Dry loose capacity: 240kg/m3.

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